"Historical material is scarce and unknowns are many. So dreams and legends have spread." -
1.) Jujutsu at the time was considered brutal and barbaric and had a bad reputation. School vs school contests were common and these were known to be brutal.
2.) Kano, the founder of Judo, was an educator and wanted Judo to be an educational development of Jujutsu. (He emphasized Judo as a self defense system creating a pathway towards peace and universal harmony. Kano always considered Judo a form of, and a development of, Jujutsu.)
3.) Kano's school was not the only one to emphasize 'Randori' live training. Infact he got Randori from the Jujutsu schools he trained in.
4.) One of the most successful and feared school at the time was the 'Totsuka-
5.) The most notable 'ne-
6.) Other Jujutsu schools also created their own techniques for their Randori training and contests.
7.) The influence of 'modern' styles of Jujutsu (Jiu-
8.) Some of Kano's best recruits were already highly trained Jujutsu-
9.) The term 'Judo' was already in use by other Jujutsu schools before Kano's school.
More Information and Sources:
The new edition of Ellis Amdur's book, "Old School" deals with this issue. There is a diary of a German doctor and professor that survives and has been translated and published that covers the time period and tells of all of Kano's students and Kano himself being bested by the students of Totsuka from Chiba. "Awakening Japan" by Erwin Baelz, who also studied Jikishinkage ryu with Sakakibara around 1880.
Doug Walker -
It is possible that subsequent to the initial matches that Baelz writes about, that Kano read and never objected to, by the way, that there were subsequent matches. The best research in this area is by Jonathan Zwicker, who has scoured newspapers and other 19th century documents, trying to find some reference to these famous matches. He writes: "Murata Naoki, the Kodokan's chief archivist, was interviewed about this earlier this year in a newspaper and said: "historical material is scarce and unknowns are many. So dreams and legends have spread." "In terms of the police match, the earliest mention I can find is 1916. At this point, very little detail is given. Yamashita is said to have fought Teurshima and not to have been defeated by him and Saigō is said to have fought Kōchi and though he was thrown repeatedly by this much larger opponent eventually stopped him with his yama-
I don’t think its any accident that in exactly the same issue of Jūdō in which the first mention of the Totsuka match is made there is a long article ‘explaining’ Itō Tokugorō’s loss to Ad Santel. As Joe hinted at, the Itō-
Yamashita himself publishes a story about the matches in a boy’s magazine –-
Ellis Amdur -
There are two major sources that be considered as responsible for the popularity of this myth. The first one is the book "Sugata Sanshiro" written by TOMITA Tsuneo (followed by the movies from Kurosawa), the son of Tomita Tsunejiro, Kano´s first student and the bilingual (english-
The above assertion seems very odd since there had already been a large number of works dealing with Judo´s early history and creation at the beginning of the twentieth century, two written by Kano´s early student Arima Sumihoto (Judo -
The Judo magazine relies heavilly on Tomita´s novel Sugata Sanshiro and deals mostly with the alledged "Dojo Yaburi" times prior the Police tournament. Of course the Judokas always won the encounters thus increasing their fame. About the tournament in itself, the Judo magazine states:"Tokusaburo KANO, one of the directors of the kodokan relates:"owing to the growing reputation of the Kodokan, Police Headquarters had decided to invite the Kodokan to oppose the ju-
Now, Jigoro KANO wrote in his memoires:"
At the Great Demonstration of the Police Heaquarters, Saigo fought Kochi, a real giant who practiced Ju-
The competion proved to be quite rough. The most closely watched contests that day were those involving Kodokan representatives and those from the famous Totsuka Yoshin School of jujutsu. Most of our men performed throwing techniques well, but in mat encounters, some of them were often in difficulty. This occurence was a loud wake-
Later on page 49-
Thinking of it, it seems highly improbable that jujutsukas would challenge the young Kodokan. It does not make any sense to challenge somebody with no reputation, no history (the Kodokan was founded in 1882 and had very few students) and no prestige. The Dojo Yaburi era is also probably part of the myth created by Kano. Saigo was an heavy drinker and had a short temper, a rather explosive combination that did not match well with Kano´s policy.
I have mentionned three books written in the beginning of the Twentieth century, two of the authors, Yokoyama and Arima were already members of the Kodokan when the tournaments took place. Nowhere in the books, I was able to find a mention of these encounters which seems very strange given the importance they have today. It is unthinkable that such a performance could have been forgotten so quickly by their very actors. E.J Harrison was a personal friend of Yokayama, he decided to invite him to diner in hishouse in Kojimachi wíth other friends both gentlemen had in common. Asked about his fiercest opponents, Yokoyama cites two jujutsukas of the time: Samura Masahara of the Takenouchi-
I can´t help thinking that Kano had a personal grudge against the Totsuka-
Raff Deutsch -